Fractures are most commonly caused by trauma like kicking or dropping something on your foot. Most people feel like they are going to puke as soon as they break a bone. Occasionally, fractures can occur because of a decrease in the bone stock or twisting and turning too fast with your foot still planted on the ground called torque fractures.
Diagnosis is made by obtaining X-rays to look for cracks in the bone whether they are partial or complete fractures. Skin evaluation will most commonly show bruising over and around the area from the broken bone bleeding when it was initially traumatized. A tuning fork is used to see if pain is elicited indicating a bone fracture. Even if there is a stress fracture that can’t be seen on x-ray for up to 3 weeks the tuning fork will elicit pain. Palpaton about the area will most likely cause pain and swelling which will present itself from the inflammatory processes that has been initiated from the trauma.